Isorders (5). Population studies showed a strong correlation between proinflammatory biomarkers (such as c-reactive protein, il-6, and tnf-î±) and perturbations in glucose homeostasis, obesity, and atherosclerosis (6, 7). generic viagra canada Another emerging risk factor is oxidized ldl (ox-ldl), which activates circulating monocytes, thereby increasing their ability to infiltrate adipose tissues and the vascular wall. This increased infiltration is a key event in obesity, loss of insulin signaling, atherogenesis, and plaque destabilization and rupture (8 , – , 11). buy viagra usa online Recent data suggest that increased oxidative stress in adipose tissue is an early instigator of associated metabolic disorders. have prescription viagra Moreover, the redox state in adipose tissue is a potentially useful therapeutic target for the obesity-associated metabolic syndrome (12). buy viagra canada Our aim was to review data and discuss what molecules are likely to be common regulators of these pathogenic processes in adipose and vascular tissues. Candidate molecules are micrornas (mirs). viagra without prescription Mirs are highly conserved noncoding rna molecules of ∼22 nt that exert post-transcriptional effects on gene expression. They generally bind to the target sequence localized in the 3′-untranslated region of their target mrnas and regulate protein translation or mrna stability (for review, see refs. where can i buy viagra in australia 13, 14). Early studies in caenorhabditis elegans determined that mir-mediated regulation was post-transcriptional, because there were large effects on protein expression and no discernible effects on mrna abundance (15). In other systems, modest effects on the amounts of the mrna target were seen in addition to substantial degrees of regulation at the protein level (16). viagra dosage time Other studies provided experimental support for the proposed postinitiation mechanism of translational repression (17). Mirs are expressed in a tissue- and cell-type specific manner and play essential roles in many biological processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, development, and differentiation. Furthermore, mirs have been associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, impaired adipogenesis and insulin signaling, and apoptosis and angiogenesis in relation to obesity. viagra price walmart All of these processes contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and associated cardiovascular disorders (18 , – , 20). However, their association with these processes does not necessarily imply a causal role. viagra samples Therefore, our first goal was to review the functional roles of various mirs in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation in adipose and vascular tissues leading to obe. cheap generic viagra